JUREX presented for English speaking Users

JUREX is a legal expert system that runs under all Windows versions. It facilitates the work of all lawyers in all languages which can be expressed by the signs of the ASCII Code. This is made possible by the fact that the legal rule is used by the program only by the interpretation of a special part of the legal rule expressed by Boolean and other algebra. Read about this in a later part of this article. It is true that at present the communication of the program with the user is only in German. But it should be no problem to translate the few words used for this communication into other languages, e. g. English, French or Spanish. So the immense advantages of JUREX over our present old-fashioned jurisprudence can be used worldwide.

JUREX can be used for three purposes

Ad 1: To solve a legal case the lawyer has a dialogue with a computer , e. g. a laptop as his partner of conversation. For this conversation he uses the mouse. If he has to express numbers or or a date (for instance on the experation of a right) he uses the keyboard. The system presents the law or its preliminary or final results by the screen. It answers by printer if this is desirable.

1.1 The first part of the dialogue is to find the paragraph or other legal structure on which the claim is based. Since hundreds of legal bases exist in the law of a country it can be difficult to find out the right one. JUREX presents a hierarchy of registers by which the applicable paragraph or other base of a claim can be found. At least in German law no such help exists until now.

1.2 The most important help is given in the interpretation of a legal rule. According to the concept of JUREX of a legal rule its components are not only the legal consequence and the preconditions of the legal consequence, but the links between the preconditions. These links are expressed by algebra. In order to express if the legal consequence exists at all, BOOLEAN algebra is used, e. g. AV(BUNC)U(DVE)UNF. . In order to express the amount of a legal consequence, e. g. the amount of a tax, other algebra is used. Also the date of a legal event , e. g. the term of a limitation, can be calculated by similar means. JUREX transforms expressions of BOOLEAN Algebra into an inversed (Polish string), that is a string, where the operator always follows the operand and treats the new expression like a programming language. This happens within milliseconds.

It is not adequate to think that the lawyer is overruled by JUREX in the application of the law. If he thinks a rule documented in a data base of JUREX he can form his answer to a precondition of this rule in a way that corresponds to his legal conviction. For the rest many legal rules leave a latitude to promote the legal concept that the lawyer has in mind.

1.3 A legal case is not solved with a single legal rule, but by the cooperative work of many rules. At present the lawyer has specific difficulties to find the next rule the legal consequence of which fits into the preconditions of the rule considered before. In JUREX care is taken by the author of the legal date base that always such a "next rule" exists if this is necessary. JUREX is enabled to find out this next rule within milliseconds too. In this way the lawyer descends to preconditions of his results up tp tp 15 layers away from the legal result and returns to it again. This is nothing but the application of the expert system algorithm. Finally the system can present the result to the lawyer. 1.4 Even if the legal result has been found it may be difficult to remember the exact way it has been found. JUREX presents two sorts of protocol to help the lawyer. One of it protocols just way the documents have been read to solve the case and adds the intermediate results of the course of investigation. The lawyer can put this protocol into a archive and later call it back to continue his work on the case. The other form of protocol transforms the dialogue into another form with the sequence of a judgment. The lawyer can easily use it to dictate his judgement.

So the artificial lawyer is superior to the natural lawyer with respect to the exact contents of possibly all legal rules and by his ability to find the next needed rule within milliseconds. The natural lawyer is superior by understanding the facts of the case and correcting the computer on grounds of equity. Lawyer and computer together can be considered as best possible partners.

1.5 The advantages of JUREX as a legal expert system can be circumscribed in the following details:

1.5.1 In JUREX the job of a lawyer requires less learning law by heart, since the data bases of JUREX present both the legal rule as the connection with the legal rules that give the details of its preconditions. So every lawyer will be able to solve a case in a legal environment where he is no expert.

1.5.2 By JUREX jurisprudence becomes a science: By the mathematical part of the future legal rule an scientific experiment becomes possible, whether a given set of legal rules really justifies the result, that other lawyers pretend to be the result of those rules. At present legal rules are only expressed by words and sentences of a language. The language justifies many interpretations. Mathematics does not. More and more knowledge-based arts have come to use mathematics and scientific experiments: alchemy has grown to chemistry, the once medieval medical art has come to accept machines that analyze diseases, architecture and linguistics have adopted computerbased procedures. It is high time for jurisprudence to do that too.

1.5.3 JUREX makes it possible to work with the law of other states since the computer comes to its results by interpretation of the mathematically expressed links between the legal consequence and its preconditions.

1.5.4 JUREX ist best used by loading down the program and the legal data bases from the Internet. The data base on the Internet can be adapted to new law, new legal decisions and literature in intervals of about a fortnight. By economic standards a book can be adapted to change in a year so that its new edition will always be outdated even at moment of editing. A legal data base for JUREX can be downloaded from the Internet in about 10 seconds. Then it must be decompressed by a program like WINZIP which will take a few further seconds. Try to buy a book in that time. Check these statements by loading down the data bases of the author on German Labour Law, that comprise 30 Million bytes, from www.jurexpert.de. Your conclusion will be that publishing-houses should do part of their legal publishing on the Internet.

1.5.5 A laptop at present has a capacity of about 1 Terabyte, i. e. 1 Million times 1 million Bytes. Compare that with the data base of 30 million bytes on German labour law. Your conclusion will be that a Lawyer can store all the law he might need on his laptop.

1.5.6 JUREX contains facilities to use it also as a data bank over all the documents contained in it.

1.5.7 Id JUREX does not find the legal rule needed to solve the case in the intended database, it continues to seek it in the other up to 25 data bases that are accessible for it. By these means the law can be treated as a a unity which is free from contradiction. In books that freeness from contradiction ends with the pages of the book, if not earlier.

1.5.8 If a lawyer in a court or administration is promoted to a job with another legal environment he needs up to half a year to be really good at his job. With the help of JUREX, which also offers the law of his new legal environment he is quicker at adapting to the requirements of his new task.

1.5.9 In administrations and insurances workers are often employed to make legal decisions that can easily be made in a quicker and more accurate way with JUREX than with other means. Their work is better by their work with JUREX since with JUREX they use data bases found lawbased in advance. Furthermore JUREX contains procedures that put the decision into an archive where the superior of the worker can control it in detail.

However it would be presumptuous to say that JUREX can fully substitute books and data bases on law. In simple cases this may be so. In complicated cases it is advisable to begin the solution by JUREX, then to read the quotations found under the legal rule offered by JUREX and to dive from there into literature and data bases.

Ad 2: To create a knowledge base for JUREX the lawyer must noch only have a very good knowledge of the law that is to be documented but also of the conventions that are to be followed to make the documentation work for JUREX. The requirements as to the single document that illustrates a legal sentence are set by the documentation program itself. The input is repudiated if the requirements are not fulfilled.

But there are also requirements that concern the relationship of the lower legal sentence to the legal sentence of which a requirement is explained. These requirements are controlled by a special program which edits or prints out a cluster of documents to demonstrate their coherence. For the German labour law these printouts fill 36 documentation files. They give an excellent overview over the place where the required rule can be found.

Finally JUREX offers a program to compose a data base from many small data bases. The documenting lawyer is at the moment of documentation mentally overstrained to keep an overview over the whole part of the law he has to document. He creates smaller knots of law with a few documents and unites them later. Furthermore every change in a data base creates uselesse space. At intervals this space has to be removed by transferring only the valid documents to a new data base.

Ad 3: At present lawyers have no means to make flawless laws.

The text of the law should be so clear-cut that no different interpretations by other lawyers are foreseeable.

The law should make no omissions within the field for which it pretends to give rules.

Every case supposed to be solved with the help of the future law should correspond to equity.

The law should be systematic so that rules that are necessary to solve the same group of cases can be found in the same group of paragraphs.

Obviously a lawyer drafting a law is unable to fulfill all these requirements at the same time. Only in his mind he cannot think the many cases to end but will be overstrained at the third or fourth level of solution like a chess player.

JUREX can give the following support: The legislating lawyers transforms his draft of a bill into a JUREX knowledge base. Then he and his collegues form cases that have to be solved with the help of the data base. If the data base is not adequate to fulfill the requirements quoted above it has to be improved until all the cases are solved in an adequate way. Only then the legal data base is retransformed into the textform of a law. This method of testing is since a long time the method how machines are tested. A model of the intended machine is used for different test situations. It is given free for production only if it does not fail in any of the test. A law is sort of a machine that generates legal consequences. So it is not understandable why it should not be tested like a machine. In most cases the JUREX routines quoted ad 1 and ad 2 will be sufficient to make flawless laws

If laws rule concerns the payment of money ( e. g. social security laws, tax laws, laws concerning rigths to alimony) these routines may not be sufficient. Such laws rule about a great many cases where the iustitia distributiva requires precise harmonization. JUREX provides two additional methods to calculate the consequences of a large set of cases.

The first method just varies cases, then calculates their consequences and then presents their prerequisits and financial consequences on a table, that can be printed out. By comparing the data of the table the legislator can judge if his rules correspond to equity.

The second method uses existing micro databases that came about e. g. by administrating social security benefits for calculating the intended the amount of money to be paid according to the intended law for every case contained in the micro data base. Also here the prerequisites of the case and the financial consequence in every case are shown on a table. Here the amount of money concerned by the whole legislative mesure can be estimated.

JUREX has not been approved by the publishing-houses that publish legal literature in Germany. They think that the revenues from their books and data bases might be diminished, since JUREX gives more accurate and time-adjusted information. So they formed a secret cartel with the aim to subdue any information about JUREX. This cartel is illegal but successful at least since 2006. So help from other countries is needed to fight back against this illegal mafia. The author applies to organisations in other states if they are interested to promote the science and the rule of law in their country with the help of JUREX. Uwe Hartleb, Franz-Eisele-Allee 2, 82340 Feldafing, Phone: 049 8158 99 79 727 e-mail: uwe-hartleb@t-online.de Back to Website